Tier 3 Primary Grade Reading Interventions: Can We Distinguish Necessary from Sufficient?
Contribution to Book
Reading instruction, Elementary education
The purpose of this chapter is to describe tier 3 reading interventions used for primary grade students (in kindergarten through third grade). Within multi-tier response-to-intervention systems, tier 3 is reserved for the very few students with the most persistent reading difficulties, having demonstrated significant difficulties in learning to read even with tier 1 and tier 2 supports. As explained in greater detail, tier 3 may be a last layer of intervention in general education that serves as part of a prereferral process or it may be special education. Following the description of the conceptual framework for the chapter, and the discussion of variability in tier 3 implementation, the literature is reviewed to learn whether it is known what is necessary and sufficient to help students who are struggling to read, including students with reading or mild-to-moderate intellectual disabilities. Implications for research are discussed and directions for future research are identified.
Handbook of Response to Intervention
Shane R. Jimerson, Matthew K. Burns, Amanda M. VanDerHeyden
Graduate Psychology and Counseling
Greulich, Luana; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Allor, Jill; Ortiz, Miriam; Wanzek, Jeanie; and Torgesen, Joseph, "Tier 3 Primary Grade Reading Interventions: Can We Distinguish Necessary from Sufficient?" (2016). Faculty Publications. 654.