Title

Tier 3 Primary Grade Reading Interventions: Can We Distinguish Necessary from Sufficient?

Document Type

Contribution to Book

Publication Date

1-1-2016

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to describe tier 3 reading interventions used for primary grade students (in kindergarten through third grade). Within multi-tier response-to-intervention systems, tier 3 is reserved for the very few students with the most persistent reading difficulties, having demonstrated significant difficulties in learning to read even with tier 1 and tier 2 supports. As explained in greater detail, tier 3 may be a last layer of intervention in general education that serves as part of a prereferral process or it may be special education. Following the description of the conceptual framework for the chapter, and the discussion of variability in tier 3 implementation, the literature is reviewed to learn whether it is known what is necessary and sufficient to help students who are struggling to read, including students with reading or mild-to-moderate intellectual disabilities. Implications for research are discussed and directions for future research are identified.

First Page

389

Last Page

404

Book Title

Handbook of Response to Intervention

Editor

Shane R. Jimerson, Matthew K. Burns, Amanda M. VanDerHeyden

Publisher

Springer

City

Boston, MA

ISBN

978-1-4899-7567-6

DOI

10.1007/978-1-4899-7568-3_23

First Department

Graduate Psychology and Counseling

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