Prevalence and Correlates for Smoking among Persons Aged 25 Years or Older in Two Rural Districts of Zambia

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Smoking is a major risk factor for lung cancer and is the most widely recognized modifiable risk factor for this disease. No studies have been conducted on correlates for smoking in rural areas of Zambia where smoking rates may be higher than in urban settings. A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of smoking and its correlates in two rural districts of Zambia, namely Kaoma and Kasama. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent correlates for smoking. In total, 895 participants from Kaoma and 1198 participants from Kasama took part in the survey. Of the 886 participants in Kaoma and 1,195 from Kasama with recorded gender, 40.3% and 42.8% were males, respectively. Sex, body mass index and alcohol consumption were independently associated with smoking in both districts. Male participants were more likely to smoke than females (AOR=2.38; 95% CI [1.92, 2.95] in Kaoma and AOR = 2.62; 95% CI [2.13, 3.22] in Kasama). Participants who were lean were more likely to smoke than those who were overweight or obese (AOR=2.85, 95% CI [1.76, 4.60] in Kaoma, and AOR=2.36, 95% CI [1.59, 3.50] in Kasama). Other factors associated with smoking were alcohol use, low education (in Kaoma district) and older age (45 years or older). The findings reveal that smoking is prevalent among rural residents in Kaoma and Kasama, Zambia. Smoking is positively associated with older age, male gender, alcohol use, low BMI. Effective preventive strategies are needed to halt the growing trend of smoking.

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International Journal of Child Health and Human Development





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Public Health, Nutrition and Wellness