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Two previous studies by Burnett and colleagues found preliminary support for several innate well-being and behavioral variables that contribute to one’s Psychological Body Armor’sTM (PBA), which is comprised of two unique interacting pathways (proactive and reactive resilience) among trained disaster mental health responders and the general population. This study sought to improve, expand, and replicate the findings of these two studies. Data was collected from 509 Amazon Mechanical Turk workers and 343 trained novice and experienced disaster mental health crisis intervention responders, who were general members of the International Critical Incident Stress Foundation or the Michigan Crisis Response Association, eight months into the COVID-19 global pandemic. Participants completed eight of the original measures used in the original studies, three revised measures, five new measures and an open-ended question about one’s spiritual wellness routines. Controlling for the level of social disruption due to COVID-19, several significant correlations for both pathways were found similar to the two previous studies. Among both samples, hierarchical regression analyses revealed that mindfulness and self-efficacy were significant predictors of resilience capacity for the proactive pathway, while personal relationships with others was a significant predictor for the reactive pathway. Similar to the two previous studies, qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) revealed having professional crisis intervention training contributed more to strong resilience for both pathways. Transcendental phenomenological qualitative data analysis identified 14 spiritual wellness routines among crisis responders with prayer, reading religious literature, meditation and attending religious services being the most frequent.

Journal Title

Crisis, Stress, and Human Resilience: An International Journal





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First Department

Behavioral Sciences


Open access article retrieved July 6, 2022 from

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