Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Seventh-day Adventist Theological Seminary


Religion, New Testament PhD

First Advisor

Robert M. Johnston

Second Advisor

Jon Paulien

Third Advisor

Jacques B. Doukhan


The purpose of this study was to investigate the continuity/discontinuity between the Testaments with the Warrior Messiah motif as a test. The intertestamental writings (IW) were also included with their interpretive role to assess the continuity. The approach of "canonical biblical theology" was adopted as the methodology.

The findings of chapter 2 on the OT show: the core messianic ideas already existed from the beginning, rather than gradual developments; earlier biblical material forms the background of the later ones, and not the surrounding ANE texts; the nature of the warfare is universal and cosmic; the divine Warrior fights the antagonistic power represented in some passages as the serpentine sea-dragon; the method of his fight is through humiliation and sacrificial death; the way of dating the OT books has an effect on the messianic concepts and also on the notion of continuity.

The findings of chapter 3 on the IW show: the conflict is universal and cosmic, rather than simply nationalistic or political; the figure utilizes the wisdom or the Word from his mouth as weapons and not the military ones; in the context of the whole IW, the Davidic Prince, Prince of Light, Michael, Melchizedek, Son of Man, and Son of God are different titles of the same messianic figure.

Chapter 4 presents Jesus as the messianic Warrior depicted in the NT: he came as the predicted Messiah and won the victory over the cosmic evil, also called Satan, the sea-dragon, or the principalities and powers; his victory was manifested by casting out demons and walking on the water; the warfare is not in a political, earthly dimension, though human history is the battleground by human agents; his ultimate victory was through his humiliated death on the cross, and it will be consummated by his coming; the NT books, including Revelation, find their background in the OT.

Strong continuity of the motif was detected between the OT and the NT, and the IW support it. The already-and- not-yet aspect is shown in both Testaments.

Subject Area

Messiah, Messiah--Judaism, Messiah in literature, Apocryphal books (Old Testament)--Relation to the Old Testament, Jesus Christ -- Messiahship, Bible. New Testament -- Relation to the Old Testament, Warrior Messiah


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