Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education


Higher Education Administration EdD

First Advisor

Edward A. Streeter

Second Advisor

Paul S. Brantley

Third Advisor

David S. Penner


Problem. No study had been undertaken to examine any relationships which might exist between the two concepts of perceived leader authenticity and the perceived instructional leadership behaviors of middle-level principals.

Method. This ex post facto study obtained data from three groups--supervisors, principals, and teachers--via their responses to two questionnaires: the Leader Authenticity Scale and the Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale. A total of 247 of the teachers, all 10 of the supervisors, and all 10 of the principals returned the surveys. Canonical analysis, and one-, two-, and three-way ANOVA were conducted to test the five null hypotheses. Alpha was set at .05. Selected demographic variables were controlled.


  1. Significant correlation was found to exist between the two instruments as whole entities.
  2. There were significant differences between the means of the three subgroups on 9 of the 14 sub-scales. Item analysis of each subscale enriched the interpretation of results.
  3. Significant differences between means relative to gender were found on two of the 14 subscales.
  4. Significant interaction between teacher age and number of years of working with current principal were found on 2 of 14 subscales.
  5. There were significant differences between the means of higher enrollment schools and lower enrollment schools on 6 of 14 subscales.


  1. A good instructional manager is an accountable, highly visible, supervisor of instruction who provides performance incentives to both teachers and learners without manipulation.
  2. Teachers have different perceptions about authenticity and instructional management than supervisors and principals.
  3. Male teachers have some perceptions different than female teachers.
  4. Older teachers with more years of working with the current principal perceived the principal to be more manipulative than other groups did.
  5. Teachers in higher enrollment schools have higher perceptions of the frequency or quality of some principal behaviors than teachers from smaller enrollment schools.

Subject Area

Teacher-principal relationships, Middle schools.