Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education


Religious Education, PhD

First Advisor

Roy C. Naden

Second Advisor

Robert Baker

Third Advisor

Bernard M. Lall


Problem. The purpose of this project was to develop empirically a curriculum to assist Seventh-day Adventist sports acrobatic coaches, physical education instructors, physical education majors and minors to integrate spiritual witnessing concepts into their acrobatics programs.

Method. The developmental process of Baker and Schutz (1971) was used to produce and validate the instructional product. First, the content of a curriculum to train Seventh-day Adventist coaches was identified through an examination of acro-gymnastic and witnessing literature.

The materials were divided into instructional units, arranged in a logical sequence, and introduced with behavioral objectives. It was established that the product would be successful when 80% of the subjects achieved at least 80% on each objective.

In the developmental process, the product was revised several times. Some units were expanded while others were streamlined. Weaknesses exposed during the tryout stages were corrected and participants' and instructor's manuals were prepared. At the conclusion of the final presentation, the required standard for mastery was attained on all objectives.

Results. The instructional product met the established criteria -- 80% of the subjects reached each objective at or above the 80% mastery level.

The witnessing model. During the development of the witnessing model, it was discovered that assurance of salvation is not common among Seventh-day Adventist young people and they are particularly confused about the concept of "God's wrath." They also expressed feelings of not being "good enough" to please God. The impact of the material showing that God is not their enemy gives people hope and good news to which they can witness.

Younger SDA youth responded to the concept that God loves them and desires to take them home with Him. However, at the college level, this concept is much more difficult for them to accept. Obtaining eternal life, to many, seemed to be a "gamble."

Subject Area

Acrobatics--Curricula, Witness bearing (Christianity), College students--Religious life


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