Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


College of Education and International Services


Leadership PhD

First Advisor

William H. Green

Second Advisor

Paul S. Brantley

Third Advisor

Jimmy Kijai



Much of what is known concerning implementation of innovation in schools is dependent on personal characteristics of teachers and principals, and school characteristics. Few studies have focused on study group (groups of 3-6 teachers and principals) activities and principals' active participation in the implementation processes. The purpose of this study was to describe the training session and bring to light some factors that would help teachers, who have gone through an intensive and well organized training session in the cooperative and inductive models of teaching, to implement the innovation in spite of personal and school characteristics.


This study used a qualitative case study method to describe and explain the implementation processes. One-hundred-twenty-four participants from 34 schools had come for the training in the cooperative and inductive processes. Four schools were selected for closer study based on cohesive and leadership qualities. Four principals and 13 teachers represented the four schools in the training session. The implementation of the innovation was examined for eight weeks.

The teachers' personal characteristics (psychological level) were studied using Hunt's conceptual level surveys and McKibbin and Joyce's growth state interviews. The levels of implementation were investigated using: records of observations during the training session and classroom teaching, cognition and implementation interviews, essays, personal logs, and group logs. Data gathering procedures were triangulated to ensure trustworthiness of the findings.

This study documented the five-day training session, what the participants envisioned would happen as a result of the training, their report on levels of implementation, and my observations of the levels of implementation of the cooperative and inductive processes.


This study showed that the teachers' personal characteristics (psychological level) and school characteristics (selected school climate variables) did not seem to have an effect on implementation of educational ideas from training. The participants adjudged study group meetings as the most influential factor in implementation of the innovation.


Factors such as intensive training, study group meetings, principal participation, in-training and in-class practicing, and keeping of personal and study group logs can influence the success of the implementation efforts. These factors are rather simple to implement and something people can do. The introduction of these activities could persuade and help individuals practice innovations so that implementation is more likely to be successful.

Subject Area

Teachers--In-service training; Educational innovations


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