Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


College of Education and International Services


Educational Psychology, Ph.D.

First Advisor

Donna J. Habenicht

Second Advisor

Wilfred G. A. Futcher

Third Advisor

Marion J. Merchant



Valid psychological instruments for use with Chinese children in Taiwan are scarce. The present study attempted to validate the Kinetic Family Drawing as a measure of the self in the family context as well as the perceived parent-child relationship among Chinese children in Taiwan, and to obtain normative data on the KFD for this population.


A correlational research design was used to determine the validity of the KFD using aSemantic Differential (SD) of four concepts--"Father and Me," "Mother and Me," "Me," and "My Whole Family"--as a criterion measure. The KFDs were rated for 80 variables recommended by Burns (1982) and four new variables devised by the researcher regarding the relative size of self and types of barriers between major figures. A stratified random sample of 204 male and 204 female students representing grades 4, 5, and 6, and four different residential areas in Taiwan was used. Canonical correlation analyses and a step-wise multiple-regression analysis were used to test thenull hypotheses. Data were also treated descriptively to obtain normative information.


(1) The Semantic Differential was a suitable criterion instrument for investigating the concurrent validity of the KFD. (2) Distribution of most of the KFD variables was skewed and lacked variability, especially the actions, which appeared to be culturally based. (3) KFD styles and other pathological signs were not evident in this non-clinical population. (4) Ten KFD variables correlated significantly with the SD concepts using the new scoring system. Face completion of father correlated negatively.


The KFD technique is useful with Chinese school children, grades 4-6, in Taiwan, if the Chinese culture is considered when making interpretations. The most valid KFD variables for measuring self-concept and parent/child relationship appeared to be facial expression of the major figures, relative size of self, types of barriers between father and self, types of barriers between mother and self, the eye completion of father, distance between father and mother, and the Like-To-Live-In-Family variable. Face completion of father seems to be questionable for use with this population.

Subject Area

Kinetic Family Drawing Test--Taiwan; Family--Taiwan


Files over 3MB may be slow to open. For best results, right-click and select "save as..."