Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Religious Education, PhD

First Advisor

John B. Youngberg

Second Advisor

Bernard M. Lall

Third Advisor

Wolfgang Kunze


Problem. Andrews University has maintained a large international student population throughout the years, but no previous study exists that examines expectations of reentry problems among international students. Consequently, neither has there been data collected on important demographic variables influencing the sojourn experience of this group, nor does there exist information about relationships among demographic variables and specific reentry areas that shape the students' expectations about the return home.

Method. The Expectations of Problems Upon Return to the Home Country Among International Students at Andrews University survey instrument was developed. Descriptive statistics were used to discover demographic characteristics and frequency of responses. t-tests were done to identify the presence of significant differences between selected dichotomous student characteristics and seven areas of reentry concern. One-way ANOVAs were done to explore main effects among non-dichotomous variables and two-way ANOVAs were done to explore possible interactions.

Results. Unmarried students had significantly higher expectations of problems in the return experience in regard to three reentry areas: national and political conditions (p =.001), educational aspects (p =.049) and professional aspects (p =.006).

Students who socialized little, or not at all, with other students from the same country had significantly lower expectations of problems in regard to professional aspects in the return experience than those who socialized more (p =.0248).

Seven significant main effects and ten significant interactive effects were obtained for variables unrelated to hypotheses in the study.

Conclusions. Marital status, age, level of degree program, location of Andrews University, use of English language and socialization with students from the home country represent significant student characteristics that shape expectations of reentry problems in regard to cultural adjustment, national and political conditions, professional aspects and church work adjustment. Professional integration is an issue of primary concern.

Subject Area

Students, Foreign--Michigan, Returned students, Andrews University--students


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