Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Seventh-day Adventist Theological Seminary


Religion, Old Testament Studies PhD

First Advisor

Jiří Moskala

Second Advisor

Richard M. Davidson

Third Advisor

Jacques B. Doukhan



The expression ["at that time"] in Dan 12:1 is the last temporal expression of the predictive discourse of Dan 11:2–12:3. There is no consensus about the temporality of this expression. Thus, this dissertation seeks to answer the following question: What is the temporal frame of the phrase ["at that time"] is in Dan 12:1 according to the temporal indicators provided in the context of the predictive discourse of Dan 11:40–12:3?


The methodology of this dissertation combines diachronic and synchronic approaches. First, as a diachronic procedure, it analyzes ["at that time"] in the Hebrew Bible to determine its temporality in each case, and second, as a synchronic approach, it studies the temporality of ["at that time"] in the context of Dan 11:40–12:3 in more detail. The analysis goes beyond the clause, including the morpho-syntactic flow of the verb in the pericope. The linguistic analysis for the temporal identification of ["at that time"] in Dan 12:1 follows among others, the principles of Longacre and Bowling’s work. The synchronic approach includes an exegetical analysis in the sphere of the clause and parts of the speech. Adverbs, prepositions, demonstrative pronouns, and other grammatical elements contribute to temporality. Moreover, the exegesis presents the relation of ["at that time"] to other temporal phrases in Dan 12.

Findings: ["At that time"] in the Hebrew Bible.

The temporal-semantic roles of ["at that time"] in the Pentateuch are of two types: (1) the synchronization of temporal frames in the narrative (Genesis and Numbers) and (2) an argumentative-historical device for the instructional discourse (Deuteronomy). The temporal-semantic roles of ["at that time"] in the Former Prophets present at least five categories in terms of temporal synchronization: (1) a point in time between two temporal frames through an action (2 Kgs 8:22), (2) an action in a temporal frame (Josh 5:2; 11:10; 11:21; Judg 3:29; 12:6; 14:4; 21:14, 24; 1 Kgs 11:29; 2 Kgs 16:16; 18:16; 24:10), (3) an action after a temporal frame (Josh 6:26; 2 Kgs 20:12), (4) a state in a temporal frame (Judg 4:4; 1 Kgs 14:1), (5) two temporal frames in consecutive order (1 Kgs 8:65), and (6) a hypothetical action in a temporal frame (Judg 11:26). The temporal expression ["at that time"] contributes to the narrative of the Former Prophets of the Hebrew Bible with a temporal reference to its chronological flow and with contextual information that illuminates the meaning of history. The temporal-semantic roles of ["at that time"] in the Latter Prophets (chap. 5) include the historical narratives and prophetic predictions. In the narrative genre, ["at that time"] synchronizes an action in a temporal frame (Isa 20:2) and a point of reference of action after a temporal frame (Isa 39:1). On the other hand, the fulfillment of the predictive discourse includes (1) the near future (Jer 4:11; 8:1; 50:20; Mic 3:4; Zeph 1:2), (2) the messianic/eschatological era (Jer 33:15), (3) the restoration/eschatological era (Isa 18:7; Jer 3:17; Joel 4:1; Zeph 3:19–20), and (4) a combination of the near future and eschatological era (Jer 31:3; 50:4).

Conclusion: ["At that time"] in Daniel 12:1.

The analysis of the temporality of Dan 12:1 in its context indicates that ["at that time'] is the last segment of ["end time"], merging into the temporal flow of the time of the end. ["At that time"] synchronizes the temporal phrase of Dan 12:1, ["but at that time Michael will stand up"], with the phrase of Dan 11:45, ["and he will plant his palatial tents"] in Dan 11:45, ["at that time"] in Dan 12:1 does not occur (1) previously in Dan 11:40, (2) at the end of the life of the King of the North, or (3) after the end of the life of the King of the North. Thus, ["at that time"] begins when the King of the North plants his palatial tents against the glorious and holy mountain. Moreover, the temporal frame of ["at that time"] includes Dan 12:1–3 and its events: (1) the standing of Michael (Dan 12:1), (2) the liberation (Dan 12:1), (3) the resurrection (Dan 12:2), and (4) the shining of the wise (Dan 12:3).

Subject Area

Bible. Daniel 11-12--Criticism, interpretation, etc.; Prophecy--Judaism; Time--Religious aspects; Time in the Bible

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