Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Seventh-day Adventist Theological Seminary


Religion, Mission and Ministry PhD

First Advisor

Bruce L. Bauer

Second Advisor

Jerry A. Moon

Third Advisor

Gorden R. Doss


This research aimed to discover whether there are any reasons from the Scriptures and writings of Ellen G. White regarding fear of evil spiritual forces. Thus research aims to understand the historical, cultural and religious reasons Kamba Christians frequently live in fear and dual allegiance. Biblical solutions will be suggested to permanently eliminate that fear. Fear is often so great that born-again Christians carry protective devices and practices which they believe will ward off the invading evil spiritual forces.

The Old Testament writings were examined to see how God wanted His people to relate to any evil power. The Old Testament teachings on such powers were examined, as were God’s attitudes towards the people who used evil spiritual powers. Selected New Testament writings were examined to see how Jesus, the disciples, and Paul dealt with evil spiritual powers. The writings of Ellen G. White were also examined to note how her writings explain the workings of evil spiritual powers.

The Kamba worldview was also examined to note its contribution. It was found that there were no biblical or Ellen G. White writings that justify the fear of evil spiritual powers. According to the Kamba worldview, however, it was found that a Christian must replace his or her worldview with a Bible-based worldview. One has to glean critically whether there is justification for any Christian to carry in his/her pocket a device from satanic powers to ward off evil spiritual powers sent to the Christian by an evil satanic person and after that make a concluding determination on whether there is any reason to fear evil spiritual powers.

Subject Area

Kamba (Africa people)--Religion; Fear of spirits; Powers (Christian theology); Spirits