Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Seventh-day Adventist Theological Seminary


Religion, Old Testament Studies PhD

First Advisor

Richard M. Davidson

Second Advisor

Roy E. Gane

Third Advisor

Robert M. Johnston


The Topic

This dissertation seeks to ascertain whether there are indicators of Exodus typology within the Old Testament.

The Purpose

Based on R. M. Davidson’s definition of biblical typology, various elements that comprise biblical typology such as the historical aspect, divine design, prophetic aspect, Steigerung (intensification), and eschatology are traced in a number of texts that deal with the Exodus motif. This examination seems to be crucial for establishing the exegetical and hermeneutical basis for the use of Exodus typology by the New Testament writers. Chapter 1 surveys the perception and use of typology throughout the centuries up to the present. The traditional approach considers persons, events or actions, and institutions as being divinely ordained or designed types to foreshadow aspects of Christ and his ministry. After the historical-critical repudiation new interest into typology arose. While most scholars tend to favor either the “Pattern of God’s Acts” approach or the “Historical Hermeneutics” approach, R. M. Davidson points out the need for a controlled hermeneutics, thus calling for indicators of typology already within the Old Testament. Chapter 2 seeks to establish the basic elements that are part of a biblical typology suggested by Davidson’s definition. Various passages that are directly linked to or describe the Exodus in the Pentateuch are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the eschatological context. Chapter 3 seeks to trace the elements of biblical typology throughout the prophetic writings that deal with the Exodus motif. While the passages of the Pentateuch stand in direct connection to the historical event of the Exodus, the prophetic writings function as hinges that connect the past redemption with the future redemption.


This dissertation concludes that there is in relation to the Exodus a type/anti-type relation that connects the Old Testament with the New Testament. This type/anti-type relation is based on a historical structure. It includes a divine design and the element of Steigerung. The announcement of the anti-type is always a prophecy and thereby hermeneutically controlled. The anti-type has no multiple fulfillments-but only one. The anti-type finds its fulfillment only in the eschaton, i.e., in Christ or in the realities of the new covenant related to and brought about by Christ.

Subject Area

Bible, New Testament--Relation to the Old Testament, Typology (Theology), Symbolism in the Bible, Andrews University--Dissertations--Bible. N.T.--Relation to the Old Testament.


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