Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts


Theological Seminary


Religion, MA: Archaeology

First Advisor

Randall W. Younker

Second Advisor

Paul J, Ray

Third Advisor

Constance E. Gane



Paul W. Lapp excavated at ‘Araq al-‘Emir and dated Stratum V to Iron Age I with an occupation gap before later periods. Later findings by scholars suggested a later date for this stratum, but no one has reviewed the original material in order to complete this. This study revisited the date of Stratum V using Lapp’s original sherds and field notes.


The original sherds and field notes were borrowed from Nancy L. Lapp at Pittsburgh Theological Seminary. The data in the field notes was cross-examined with the sherds to identify the relevant sherds. A comparative analysis was conducted on these sherds to achieve a date for the stratum.


The results of the comparative analysis showed a range of sherds from Iron Age I to the Iron Age IIC/Persian Period. Since strata are dated based on the latest sherds, Stratum V should be dated to the Iron Age IIC/Persian period.


Lapp was wrong in dating Stratum V to Iron Age I. Ji is correct in pointing out that Lapp’s sherds represent a later time period. However, critics of Lapp should not deny that evidence exists for Iron Age I activity. Stratum V should be dated to the Iron Age IIC/Persian period.

Subject Area

Araq el-Emir Site (Jordan), Jordan--Antiquities

Files over 3MB may be slow to open. For best results, right-click and select "save as..."