Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts


Seventh-day Adventist Theological Seminary

First Advisor

Name of advisor not identified


Statement of the problem

It was the purpose of this investigation, (l) to discover whether the dates as given in the Litch-Smith view of Revelation the ninth chapter, which ends the times of the fifth and sixth trumpets on August 11, 1840, agree with both the Bible and history; and if not, (2) to determine whether a solution is possible that would agree with both factors in view of the criticism presently leveled at the Litch-Smith view. This criticism is based on the seeming inability to find historical facts to support this view, and also on the exegesis of the prophetic language used. Thus this study is "An Inquiry Into the Time Elements of the Fifth and Sixth Trumpets of Revelation Nine."

Importance of the study to Seventh-day Adventist

Of the twenty-two beliefs of Seventh-day Adventists listed in the denominational yearbook, eleven are directly concerned with prophecy or the prophetic office. A denomination that gives such prominence In its teachings to prophetic exposition should be sure that history agrees with Biblical events, prior to attesting to classify them as fulfilled prophecy. This is especially true because of the challenge presented by many Bible scholars to faith in prophecy. However, the problem under consideration is not one of the major or fundamental beliefs of the church. Because of the difficulties encountered in seeking to fit the events as pictured by Litch and Smith with both the Bible and history, it is suggested that there must be a missing factor involved, or one erroneously interpreted. Hence this investigation was made.

Present status of the problem

The problem of Revelation nine has been in recent times practically untouched. Secular historians in general ignore prophecy as having nothing to do with their work, and many Bible scholars sought only to prove a preconceived idea, in that the symbolism of the Bible has not been understood. There is a language problem in this prophecy that also helps make it difficult to clarify. Mary churches of the present day do not stress the importance of prophecy. Hence it is almost completely ignored.

After the seeming fulfillment of Litch's prediction in August, 1840, when it seemed to many that Turkey surrendered her independence to the European powers, few troubled themselves to study the matter further. In general, the followers of the Litch-Smith view accepted the presentation as accurate. This is especially true in view of the statements concerning this event by Mrs. E. G. White in The Great Controversy Between Christ and Satan. However, as more is now becoming known of the Middle East, grave doubts have arisen as to the accuracy of this prediction. Yet while many have worked on this problem, they have either failed to reach a concurring conclusion, or else have refrained from presenting their findings.

Subject Area

Bible. Revelation 9 -- Criticism, interpretation, etc.


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