Date of Award


Document Type

Honors Thesis



First Advisor

Katherine Koudele


Each year at the Andrews University Agriculture Education Center calves born to the resident cows and calves that are purchased are raised by the students in the animal science program. In each of the previous two years that calves have been raised, morbidities and mortalities have been observed. In order to prevent any calves from dying and reduce the rate of illness this research project was designed to monitor the calves’ immune status. By doing weekly blood draws, the total serum protein levels were determined and used as a standard for their health. Body temperature, food and water intake, and activity levels could be used as health indicators.

Subject Area

Calves--Immunology; Andrews University. Agriculture Education Center