Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education


School of Education


Counseling Psychology, Ph.D.

First Advisor

Robert J. Cruise

Second Advisor

E.H. Hartbauer

Third Advisor

M.J. Merchant


Problem. Need trait -- as motivation for behavior -- and temperament type -- as emotional disposition and affective mood -- are understood to be interacting major components of the structure of personality. Past observation, speculation, and study of these constructs have lacked the psychometric and analytic refinements possible, through test development and statistical methodology, to researcher in the 1980s. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the relationship of need and temperament emerged in as consistent a manner as had been observed and tested in the past.

Method. Two standardized instruments, the Personality Research Form - AA and the Temperament Inventory were administered to undergraduate students in selected classes within seven schools. A total of four hundred seventy-five test batteries constituted the data base for the study (312 females, 163 males).

Three statistical methods were employed to analyze the data. These were (1) the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, (2) "best" subset algorithm, a variation of multiple regression, and (3) canonical correlation. Two model building statements and one null hypothesis were advanced as a component of the methodology.

Results. Results produced relationships more complex than previously suggested or tested. Differences exist among (1) the need traits for each temperament type, (2) the positive (+)/negative (-) direction for the relationships, and (3) gender (total, male, female). The following traits were significantly correlated in one or more of the three statistical methods employed: (UNFORMATTED TABLE FOLLOWS)

+ Aggression
+ Defendence
- Endurance
+ Impulsivity
+ Social Recognition
+ Succorance

+ Abasement
- Aggression
- Impulsivity

+ Achievement
+ Cognitive Structure
+ Dominance
+ Endurance
- Impulsivity
+ Order
- Play

+ Change
+ Dominance
+ Exhibition
+ Impulsivity
+ Nurturance
+ Play
+ Sentience
+ Social Recognition (TABLE ENDS)

Conclusions. (1) Theory and past empirical findings regarding the relationship of need and temperament lend support to the correlational relationships identified, although past findings are oversimplified. (2) Description configuration for the total, male, and female groups must be qualified. Males have less complex configurations than for females than for the combined group. (3) Total variance in temperament type accounted for by need traits range from 30.9 percent to 55.1 percent.

Subject Area

Need (Psychology), Temperament

Files over 3MB may be slow to open. For best results, right-click and select "save as..."