Date of Award
Doctor of Philosophy
School of Education
Counseling Psychology, Ph.D.
Purpose of the Study
The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether Psychologists who receive supervision have greater Counseling Self-efficacy and greater Counseling Outcome Expectancy than Psychologists who do not receive supervision. The secondary purpose was to assess the demographic and personal variables that are associated with Counseling Self-efficacy and Counseling Outcome Expectancy, as well as the supervisor factors associated with Counseling Self-efficacy and Counseling Outcome Expectancy.
The Counselor Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE), Counseling Outcome Expectancies Scale (COES) and the Supervision Descriptive Questionnaire (SDQ) were administered to 341 Michigan psychologists who either received supervision (n = 254) or who did not receive supervision (n = 87). Data were analyzed using ANOVA, multiple linear regression, and factor analysis. Differences and relationships were considered to be statistically significant at the p < .05 threshold.
Psychologists who received supervision were significantly different from psychologists who did not receive supervision in their levels of Counseling Self-efficacy but not in levels of Counseling Outcome Expectancy. Counseling Outcome Expectancy varied significantly based on years with supervisor, with the highest Counseling Outcome Expectancy associated with 4-10 years with supervisor. Age, gender, highest degree, license type, work setting, primary theoretical orientation, professional roles, and mandatory supervision were not significantly associated with Counseling Self-efficacy or Counseling Outcome Expectancy. Hours spent providing individual counseling was positively associated with Counseling Outcome Expectancy and approached significance with Counseling Self-efficacy, while ethnicity and hours spent providing couples/family counseling was associated with higher Counseling Self-efficacy but not Counseling Outcome Expectancy. Factor analysis revealed a 4-factor solution for the Supervision Factors Scale: Encouraging and Facilitative Behaviors, Content and Structural Focus, Focus on Personal/Professional Growth, and Administrative Procedures, with only Content and Structural Focus significantly predictive of Counseling Self-efficacy and Counseling Outcome Expectancy.
These findings indicate that supervision is significantly associated with Counseling Self-efficacy and Counseling Outcome Expectancy. Psychologists receiving supervision had significantly higher Counseling Self-efficacy and those having the same supervisor for 4-10 years had significantly higher Counseling Outcome Expectancy. Psychologists with greater experience in individual sessions had significantly higher Counseling Outcome Expectancy and psychologists with greater experience in couples/family sessions had significantly higher Counseling Self-efficacy. Counseling Self-efficacy and Counseling Outcome Expectancy are significantly associated with Content and Structural Focus. Overall, these findings highlight the role of supervision and of Content and Structural Focus on the efficacy and expectancy of psychologists in Michigan.
Psychologists--Supervision of, Psychologists--Examinations, questions, etc.--Counselors--Supervision of, Counselors--Examinations, questions, etc., Counseling
Schwartz, Gunther L., "The Relationship of Supervision Variables to Counseling Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations Among Practicing Psychologists" (2016). Dissertations. 1611.