Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Seventh-day Adventist Theological Seminary


Religion, New Testament PhD

First Advisor

Jon K. Paulien

Second Advisor

Robert M. Johnston

Third Advisor

Ranko M. Stefanovic


Problem addressed. The function of loipos in the Apocalypse is the focus of this research.

Method. A close reading approach to the Apocalypse was employed in this study. Every occurrence of loipos as it applies to human entities in contexts of judgment and salvation in the Apocalypse is examined. First, comes textual and translation matters. Then the examination of the literary context and structure follows. Next comes the historical background to each passage. Finally, the interpretation of that passage is presented.

Results. Chapter 1 presents a review of the scholarly literature from the Old and New Testaments on the remnant idea.

Chapter 2 presents the findings on remnant language in ancient cognate literature. Cognate literature provides insight into how various communities appropriated, adapted, and reformulated the remnant concept.

Chapter 3 presents the findings of the examination of loipos in contexts of judgment in the Apocalypse. These findings demonstrate that loipos in contexts of judgment narrates an eschatological movement of persons from unrepentance to organized rebellion against God and the Lamb.

Chapter 4 presents the findings of the examination of loipos in contexts of salvation. Loipos in contexts of salvation points to the people of God's covenant loyalty, covenant continuity, and end-time victory over the Beast.

The final chapter summarizes the conclusions of the research along with recommendations for future research.

Conclusions. Unlike the narrowed and restrictive concept of remnant in Qumran or Jewish apocalyptic, loipos in Revelation completes the trajectory toward a universal and eschatological remnant implied in the Gospels, explicated in Paul, and elucidated in the Apocalypse.

Subject Area

Remnant (Theology), Loipos (The Greek word), Judgment--Religious aspects, Salvation, Bible. Revelation--Criticism, interpretation, etc, Salvation

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