Between Alienation and Citizenship The Evolution of Black West Indian Society in Panama, 1914-1964
Between Alienation and Citizenship traces the history of the Black West Indian immigrant society in Panama from 1914 to 1964. Originally brought to Panama by the Americans and French as labor for the building of the Panama Canal, many of the workers stayed behind after completion of the canal to work for the Americans. Buffeted and battered by racism and prejudice from the Americans and xenophobia and chauvinism from the Panamanians, they created a thriving and even occasionally flourishing subculture and society. During much of the 50 years encompassed in this study, the Panamanian Black West Indian society existed in a kind of no man's land. The Panamanians were unwilling to accept them as full citizens even though many were born in Panama, and the Americans treated them as second-class citizens. The immigrants, also known as 'nowhereans,' faced this crisis of identity and homelessness with a steely determination and tenacity to survive. They established institutions, schools, churches, businesses, and profoundly changed the life and culture of Panama in ways that are still evident today. Between Alienation and Citizenship is a story of survival, tenacity, determination, and courage. (From Publisher Description)
University Press of America
History / General, History / Caribbean & West Indies / General, History / Latin America / General, Social Science / Emigration & Immigration, Social Science / Sociology / General
O'Reggio, Trevor, "Between Alienation and Citizenship The Evolution of Black West Indian Society in Panama, 1914-1964" (2006). Books. 29.